„Das Gespräch am Tisch wechselte plötzlich vom Französischen ins Malinke. .  Wikipedia-Artikel „französische Sprache“: [1–4] Wikipedia-Artikel. Die französische Küche (französisch Cuisine française) ist die Nationalküche Frankreichs. Sie galt seit der frühen Neuzeit als sehr einflussreiche Landesküche . Französisch bzw. die französische Sprache (französisch (le) français [(lə) fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ], (la) langue française [ (la) lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃ˈsεz]) gehört zu der romanischen Gruppe. Storming of the Bastille. The old model or französisches wikipedia focusing on class conflict has been discredited, and no new explanatory model had gained widespread support. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims especially in the larger cities living in subsidised public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates. The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. France promoted commerce and capitalism, paving the way for the ascent of französisches wikipedia steam trade url finden and the rapid growth of manufacturing and mining. Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in nhl ergebnisse 2019 The monarchy reached its peak during handball bundesliga live stream heute 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. This list may be incomplete. Inschoolbooks in France began to hannover 96 hertha bsc the newer recommended spellings, with instruction to teachers that both old and new spellings be deemed correct. Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 9 May
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Dependencies and other territories. The increasingly middle-class National Guard under Lafayette also slowly emerged as a power in its own right, as did other self-generated assemblies.
The electors had originally chosen the members of the Estates-General to serve for a single year. However, by the terms of the Tennis Court Oath , the communes had bound themselves to meet continuously until France had a constitution.
Right-wing elements now argued for a new election, but Mirabeau prevailed, asserting that the status of the assembly had fundamentally changed, and that no new election should take place before completing the constitution.
In late the French army was in considerable disarray. The military officer corps was largely composed of noblemen, who found it increasingly difficult to maintain order within the ranks.
In some cases, soldiers drawn from the lower classes had turned against their aristocratic commanders and attacked them.
This and other such incidents spurred a mass desertion as more and more officers defected to other countries, leaving a dearth of experienced leadership within the army.
This period also saw the rise of the political "clubs" in French politics. Foremost among these was the Jacobin Club ; members had affiliated with the Jacobins by 10 August The Jacobin Society began as a broad, general organisation for political debate, but as it grew in members, various factions developed with widely differing views.
Meanwhile, the Assembly continued to work on developing a constitution. A new judicial organisation made all magistracies temporary and independent of the throne.
The legislators abolished hereditary offices, except for the monarchy itself. Jury trials started for criminal cases.
The King would have the unique power to propose war, with the legislature then deciding whether to declare war. Louis XVI was increasingly dismayed by the direction of the revolution.
Eventually, fearing for his own safety and that of his family, he decided to flee Paris to the Austrian border, having been assured of the loyalty of the border garrisons.
On the night of 20 June the royal family fled the Tuileries Palace dressed as servants, while their servants dressed as nobles. However, late the next day, the King was recognised and arrested at Varennes and returned to Paris.
The Assembly provisionally suspended the King. He and Queen Marie Antoinette remained held under guard. As most of the Assembly still favoured a constitutional monarchy rather than a republic, the various groups reached a compromise which left Louis XVI as little more than a figurehead: An immense crowd gathered in the Champ de Mars to sign the petition.
Georges Danton and Camille Desmoulins gave fiery speeches. The Assembly called for the municipal authorities to "preserve public order". The soldiers responded to a barrage of stones by firing into the crowd, killing between 13 and 50 people.
Danton fled to England; Desmoulins and Marat went into hiding. Meanwhile, in August , a new threat arose from abroad: The French people expressed no respect for the dictates of foreign monarchs, and the threat of force merely hastened their militarisation.
Even before the Flight to Varennes, the Assembly members had determined to debar themselves from the legislature that would succeed them, the Legislative Assembly.
They now gathered the various constitutional laws they had passed into a single constitution, and submitted it to the recently restored Louis XVI, who accepted it, writing "I engage to maintain it at home, to defend it from all attacks from abroad, and to cause its execution by all the means it places at my disposal".
The King addressed the Assembly and received enthusiastic applause from members and spectators. With this capstone, the National Constituent Assembly adjourned in a final session on 30 September The Legislative Assembly first met on 1 October , elected by those 4 million men — out of a population of 25 million — who paid a certain minimum amount of taxes.
The King had to share power with the elected Legislative Assembly, but he retained his royal veto and the ability to select ministers. Over the course of a year, such disagreements would lead to a constitutional crisis.
In response to the threat of war of August from Austria and Prussia , leaders of the Assembly saw such a war as a means to strengthen support for their revolutionary government, and the French people as well as the Assembly thought that they would win a war against Austria and Prussia.
On 20 April , France declared war on Austria. The Legislative Assembly degenerated into chaos before October Francis Charles Montague concluded in , "In the attempt to govern, the Assembly failed altogether.
It left behind an empty treasury, an undisciplined army and navy, and a people debauched by safe and successful riot. Lyons argues that the Constituent Assembly had liberal, rational, and individualistic goals that seem to have been largely achieved by However, it failed to consolidate the gains of the Revolution, which continued with increasing momentum and escalating radicalism until Lyons identifies six reasons for this escalation.
First, the king did not accept the limitations on his powers, and mobilised support from foreign monarchs to reverse it. Second, the effort to overthrow the Roman Catholic Church, sell off its lands, close its monasteries and its charitable operations, and replace it with an unpopular makeshift system caused deep consternation among the pious and the peasants.
Third, the economy was badly hurt by the issuance of ever increasing amounts of paper money assignats , which caused more and more inflation; the rising prices hurt the urban poor who spent most of their income on food.
Fourth, the rural peasants demanded liberation from the heavy system of taxes and dues owed to local landowners.
Finally, foreign powers threatened to overthrow the Revolution, which responded with extremism and systematic violence in its own defence. In the summer of , all of Paris was against the king, and hoped that the Assembly would depose the king, but the Assembly hesitated.
On 26 August, the Assembly decreed the deportation of refractory priests in the west of France, as "causes of danger to the fatherland", to destinations like French Guiana.
With enemy troops advancing, the Commune looked for potential traitors in Paris. On 2, 3 and 4 September , hundreds of Parisians, supporters of the revolution, infuriated by Verdun being captured by the Prussian enemy , the uprisings in the west of France, and rumours that the incarcerated prisoners in Paris were conspiring with the foreign enemy, raided the Parisian prisons and murdered between 1, and 1, prisoners , many of them Catholic priests but also common criminals.
Jean-Paul Marat , a political ally of Robespierre, in an open letter on 3 September incited the rest of France to follow the Parisian example; Robespierre kept a low profile in regard to the murder orgy.
The Commune then sent a circular letter to the other cities of France inviting them to follow this example, and many cities launched their own massacres of prisoners and priests in the "September massacres".
The Assembly could offer only feeble resistance. In October, however, there was a counterattack accusing the instigators, especially Marat, of being terrorists.
This led to a political contest between the more moderate Girondists and the more radical Montagnards inside the Convention, with rumour used as a weapon by both sides.
The Girondists lost ground when they seemed too conciliatory. But the pendulum swung again and after Thermidor, the men who had endorsed the massacres were denounced as terrorists.
Chaos persisted until the Convention , elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met on 20 September and became the new de facto government of France.
The next day it abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. The following day — 22 September , the first morning of the new Republic — was later retroactively adopted as the beginning of Year One of the French Republican Calendar.
From to France was engaged almost continuously with two short breaks in wars with Britain and a changing coalition of other major powers.
The many French successes led to the spread of the French revolutionary ideals into neighbouring countries, and indeed across much of Europe.
However, the final defeat of Napoleon in and brought a reaction that reversed some — but not all — of the revolutionary achievements in France and Europe.
The politics of the period inevitably drove France towards war with Austria and its allies. The King, many of the Feuillants, and the Girondins specifically wanted to wage war.
The King and many Feuillants with him expected war would increase his personal popularity; he also foresaw an opportunity to exploit any defeat: The Girondins wanted to export the Revolution throughout Europe and, by extension, to defend the Revolution within France.
The forces opposing war were much weaker. Barnave and his supporters among the Feuillants feared a war they thought France had little chance to win and which they feared might lead to greater radicalisation of the revolution.
On the other end of the political spectrum Robespierre opposed a war on two grounds , fearing that it would strengthen the monarchy and military at the expense of the revolution, and that it would incur the anger of ordinary people in Austria and elsewhere.
The invading Prussian army faced little resistance until it was checked at the Battle of Valmy 20 September and forced to withdraw.
The new-born Republic followed up on this success with a series of victories in Belgium and the Rhineland in the fall of The French armies defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Jemappes on 6 November, and had soon taken over most of the Austrian Netherlands.
This brought them into conflict with Britain and the Dutch Republic , which wished to preserve the independence of the southern Netherlands from France.
Almost immediately, French forces suffered defeats on many fronts, and were driven out of their newly conquered territories in the spring of At the same time, the republican regime was forced to deal with rebellions against its authority in much of western and southern France.
But the allies failed to take advantage of French disunity, and by the autumn of the republican regime had defeated most of the internal rebellions and halted the allied advance into France itself.
This stalemate ended in the summer of with dramatic French victories. The French defeated the allied army at the Battle of Fleurus , leading to a full Allied withdrawal from the Austrian Netherlands.
They pushed the allies to the east bank of the Rhine, allowing France, by the beginning of , to conquer the Dutch Republic itself.
These victories led to the collapse of the anti-French coalition. Prussia, having effectively abandoned the coalition in the fall of , made peace with revolutionary France at Basel in April , and soon thereafter Spain also made peace with France.
Britain and Austria were the only major powers to remain at war with France. Although the French Revolution had a dramatic impact in numerous areas of Europe, the French colonies felt a particular influence.
Late in August , elections were held, now under male universal suffrage , for the new National Convention ,  which replaced the Legislative Assembly on 20 September In the Brunswick Manifesto , the Imperial and Prussian armies threatened retaliation on the French population if it were to resist their advance or the reinstatement of the monarchy.
This among other things made Louis appear to be conspiring with the enemies of France. On 17 January Louis was condemned to death for "conspiracy against the public liberty and the general safety" by a close majority in Convention: This encouraged the Jacobins to seize power through a parliamentary coup , backed up by force effected by mobilising public support against the Girondist faction, and by utilising the mob power of the Parisian sans-culottes.
An alliance of Jacobin and sans-culottes elements thus became the effective centre of the new government. Policy became considerably more radical, as "The Law of the Maximum" set food prices and led to executions of offenders.
The price control policy was coeval with the rise to power of the Committee of Public Safety and the Reign of Terror. The Committee first attempted to set the price for only a limited number of grain products, but by September it expanded the "maximum" to cover all foodstuffs and a long list of other goods.
The Committee reacted by sending dragoons into the countryside to arrest farmers and seize crops. This temporarily solved the problem in Paris, but the rest of the country suffered.
By the spring of , forced collection of food was not sufficient to feed even Paris, and the days of the Committee were numbered. When Robespierre went to the guillotine in July , the crowd jeered, "There goes the dirty maximum!
According to archival records, at least 16, people died under the guillotine or otherwise after accusations of counter-revolutionary activities.
Following these arrests, the Jacobins gained control of the Committee of Public Safety on 10 June, installing the revolutionary dictatorship.
On 24 June, the Convention adopted the first republican constitution of France, variously referred to as the French Constitution of or Constitution of the Year I.
It was progressive and radical in several respects, in particular by establishing universal male suffrage. It was ratified by public referendum, but normal legal processes were suspended before it could take effect.
The Reign of Terror ultimately weakened the revolutionary government, while temporarily ending internal opposition. The Jacobins expanded the size of the army, and Carnot replaced many aristocratic officers with soldiers who had demonstrated their patriotism, if not their ability.
At the end of , the army began to prevail and revolts were defeated with ease. However, this policy was never fully implemented.
Three approaches attempt to explain the Reign of Terror imposed by the Jacobins in — The older Marxist interpretation argued the Terror was a necessary response to outside threats in terms of other countries going to war with France and internal threats of traitors inside France threatening to frustrate the Revolution.
In this interpretation, as expressed by the Marxist historian Albert Soboul , Robespierre and the sans-culottes were heroes for defending the revolution from its enemies.
Hanson takes a middle position, recognising the importance of the foreign enemies, and sees the terror as a contingency that was caused by the interaction of a series of complex events and the foreign threat.
Hanson says the terror was not inherent in the ideology of the Revolution, but that circumstances made it necessary. North of the Loire , similar revolts were started by the so-called Chouans royalist rebels.
While that committee consisted only of members from la Plaine and the Girondins , the anger of the sans-culottes was directed towards the Girondins.
Crowds of people swarmed in and around the palace. Incessant screaming from the public galleries suggested that all of Paris was against the Girondins.
Petitions circulated, indicting and condemning 22 Girondins. Late that night after much more tumultuous debate, dozens of Girondins had resigned and left the Convention.
By the summer of , most French departments in one way or another opposed the central Paris government. Girondins who fled from Paris after 2 June led those revolts.
In August—September , militants urged the Convention to do more to quell the counter-revolution. A delegation of the Commune Paris city council suggested to form revolutionary armies to arrest hoarders and conspirators.
Criteria for bringing someone before the Revolutionary Tribunal , created March , had always been vast and vague.
Meanwhile, the instalment of the Republican Calendar on 24 October caused an anti-clerical uprising. The climax was reached with the celebration of the flame of Reason in Notre Dame Cathedral on 10 November.
Because of the extremely brutal forms that the Republican repression took in many places, historians such as Reynald Secher have called the event a "genocide".
The guillotine became the tool for a string of executions. The Revolutionary Tribunal summarily condemned thousands of people to death by the guillotine, while mobs beat other victims to death.
In the rebellious provinces, the government representatives had unlimited authority and some engaged in extreme repressions and abuses.
For example, Jean-Baptiste Carrier became notorious for the Noyades "drownings" he organised in Nantes ;  his conduct was judged unacceptable even by the Jacobin government and he was recalled.
On 5 April, again at the instigation of Robespierre, Danton , a moderate Montagnard , and 13 associated politicians, charged with counter-revolutionary activities,  were executed.
This hushed the Convention deputies: On 7 June , Robespierre advocated a new state religion and recommended the Convention acknowledge the existence of the "Supreme Being".
The frequency of guillotine executions in Paris now rose from on average three a day to an average of 29 a day.
This encouraged other Convention members to also defy Robespierre. A decree was adopted to arrest Robespierre , Saint-Just and Couthon. After July , most civilians henceforth ignored the Republican calendar and returned to the traditional seven-day weeks.
The government in a law of 21 February set steps of return to freedom of religion and reconciliation with the since refractory Catholic priests, but any religious signs outside churches or private homes, such as crosses, clerical garb, bell ringing, remained prohibited.
In the very cold winter of —95, with the French army demanding more and more bread, same was getting scarce in Paris as was wood to keep houses warm, and in an echo of the October March on Versailles , on 1 April 12 Germinal III a mostly female crowd marched on the Convention calling for bread.
But no Convention member sympathized, they just told the women to return home. Again in May a crowd of 20, men and 40, women invaded the Convention and even killed a deputy in the halls, but again they failed to make the Convention take notice of the needs of the lower classes.
Instead, the Convention banned women from all political assemblies, and deputies who had solidarized with this insurrection were sentenced to death: Late , France conquered present-day Belgium.
A French plebiscite ratified the document, with about 1,, votes for the constitution and 49, against.
Directory with a bicameral legislature. Each year, one-third of the chambers was to be renewed. The executive power was in the hands of the five members directors of the Directory with a five-year mandate.
The early directors did not much understand the nation they were governing; they especially had an innate inability to see Catholicism as anything else than counter-revolutionary and royalist.
The Directory denounced the arbitrary executions of the Reign of Terror, but itself engaged in large scale illegal repressions, as well as large-scale massacres of civilians in the Vendee uprising.
The economy continued in bad condition, with the poor especially hurt by the high cost of food. State finances were in total disarray; the government could only cover its expenses through the plunder and the tribute of foreign countries.
If peace were made, the armies would return home and the directors would have to face the exasperation of the rank-and-file who had lost their livelihood, as well as the ambition of generals who could, in a moment, brush them aside.
Barras and Rewbell were notoriously corrupt themselves and screened corruption in others. The patronage of the directors was ill-bestowed, and the general maladministration heightened their unpopularity.
The directors baffled all such endeavours. On the other hand, the socialist conspiracy of Babeuf was easily quelled. Little was done to improve the finances, and the assignats continued to fall in value until each note was worth less than the paper it was printed on; debtors easily paid off their debts.
Although committed to Republicanism, the Directory distrusted democracy. It never had a strong base of popular support; when elections were held, most of its candidates were defeated.
Its achievements were minor. The election system was complex and designed to insulate the government from grass roots democracy.
The parliament consisted of two houses: Executive power went to five "directors," named annually by the Conseil des Anciens from a list submitted by the Conseil des Cinq-Cents.
The universal male suffrage of was replaced by limited suffrage based on property. The voters had only a limited choice because the electoral rules required two-thirds of the seats go to members of the old Convention, no matter how few popular votes they received.
Citizens of the war-weary nation wanted stability, peace, and an end to conditions that at times bordered on chaos. Nevertheless, those on the right who wished to restore the monarchy by putting Louis XVIII on the throne, and those on the left who would have renewed the Reign of Terror, tried but failed to overthrow the Directory.
The earlier atrocities had made confidence or goodwill between parties impossible. The army suppressed riots and counter-revolutionary activities. In this way the army and in particular Napoleon gained total power.
Parliamentary elections in the spring of , for one-third of the seats in Parliament, resulted in considerable gains for the royalists,  who seemed poised to take control of the Directory in the next elections.
This frightened the republican directors and they reacted, in the Coup of 18 Fructidor V 4 September , by purging all the winners banishing 57 leaders to certain death in Guiana, removing two supposedly pro-royalist directors, and closing 42 newspapers.
Not only citizens opposed and even mocked such decrees, also local government officials refused to enforce such laws. When the elections of were again carried by the opposition, the Directory used the army to imprison and exile the opposition leaders and close their newspapers.
Napoleon, Sieyes, and Roger Ducos. The Army at first was quite successful. It conquered Belgium and turned it into a province of France; conquered the Netherlands and made it a puppet state; and conquered Switzerland and most of Italy, setting up a series of puppet states.
The result was glory for France and an infusion of much needed money from the conquered lands, which also provided direct support to the French Army.
The allies scored a series of victories that rolled back French successes, retaking Italy, Switzerland and the Netherlands and ending the flow of payments from the conquered areas to France.
The treasury was empty. Napoleon escaped by himself, returned to Paris and overthrew the Directory in November Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in — He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges.
Genoa the city became a republic while its hinterland became the Ligurian Republic. The Roman Republic was formed out of the papal holdings and the pope was sent to France.
The Neapolitan Republic was formed around Naples, but it lasted only five months before the enemy forces of the Coalition recaptured it.
In Napoleon formed the Kingdom of Italy , with himself as king and his stepson as viceroy. Their political and administrative systems were modernised, the metric system introduced, and trade barriers reduced.
Jewish ghettos were abolished. Belgium and Piedmont became integral parts of France. Most of the new nations were abolished and returned to prewar owners in However, Artz emphasises the benefits the Italians gained from the French Revolution:.
For nearly two decades the Italians had the excellent codes of law, a fair system of taxation, a better economic situation, and more religious and intellectual toleration than they had known for centuries Everywhere old physical, economic, and intellectual barriers had been thrown down and the Italians had begun to be aware of a common nationality.
In the Old regime there were a small number of heavily censored newspapers that needed a royal licence to operate. Newspapers and pamphlets played a central role in stimulating and defining the Revolution.
The meetings of the Estates-General in created an enormous demand for news, and over newspapers appeared by the end of the year.
The next decade saw 2, newspapers founded, with in Paris alone. Most lasted only a matter of weeks. Together they became the main communication medium, combined with the very large pamphlet literature.
The press saw its lofty role to be the advancement of civic republicanism based on public service, and downplayed the liberal, individualistic goal of making a profit.
Symbolism was a device to distinguish the main features of the Revolution and ensure public identification and support.
In order to effectively illustrate the differences between the new Republic and the old regime, the leaders needed to implement a new set of symbols to be celebrated instead of the old religious and monarchical symbolism.
To this end, symbols were borrowed from historic cultures and redefined, while those of the old regime were either destroyed or reattributed acceptable characteristics.
These revised symbols were used to instil in the public a new sense of tradition and reverence for the Enlightenment and the Republic.
It acquired its nickname after being sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille marching on the capital.
The song is the first example of the "European march" anthemic style. Hanson notes, "The guillotine stands as the principal symbol of the Terror in the French Revolution.
Vendors sold programmes listing the names of those scheduled to die. Many people came day after day and vied for the best locations from which to observe the proceedings; knitting women tricoteuses formed a cadre of hardcore regulars, inciting the crowd.
Parents often brought their children. By the end of the Terror, the crowds had thinned drastically. Repetition had staled even this most grisly of entertainments, and audiences grew bored.
Cockades were widely worn by revolutionaries beginning in The tricolour flag is derived from the cockades used in the s.
These were circular rosette-like emblems attached to the hat. Camille Desmoulins asked his followers to wear green cockades on 12 July The Paris militia, formed on 13 July, adopted a blue and red cockade.
Cockades with various colour schemes were used during the storming of the Bastille on 14 July. Lafayette argued for the addition of a white stripe to "nationalise" the design.
Fasces are Roman in origin and suggest Roman Republicanism. Fasces are a bundle of birch rods containing an axe. The French Republic continued this Roman symbol to represent state power, justice, and unity.
The Liberty cap, also known as the Phrygian cap , or pileus , is a brimless, felt cap that is conical in shape with the tip pulled forward. It reflects Roman republicanism and liberty, alluding to the Roman ritual of manumission of slaves, in which a freed slave receives the bonnet as a symbol of his newfound liberty.
Historians since the late 20th century have debated how women shared in the French Revolution and what long-term impact it had on French women.
Women had no political rights in pre-Revolutionary France; they were considered "passive" citizens; forced to rely on men to determine what was best for them.
That changed dramatically in theory as there seemingly were great advances in feminism. Feminism emerged in Paris as part of a broad demand for social and political reform.
The women demanded equality for women and then moved on to a demand for the end of male domination. The movement was crushed. When the Revolution opened, groups of women acted forcefully, making use of the volatile political climate.
Women forced their way into the political sphere. They swore oaths of loyalty, "solemn declarations of patriotic allegiance, [and] affirmations of the political responsibilities of citizenship.
The March to Versailles is but one example of feminist militant activism during the French Revolution. The Society of Revolutionary Republican Women, a militant group on the far left, demanded a law in that would compel all women to wear the tricolour cockade to demonstrate their loyalty to the Republic.
They also demanded vigorous price controls to keep bread — the major food of the poor people — from becoming too expensive. After the Convention passage law in September , the Revolutionary Republican Women demanded vigorous enforcement, but were counted by market women, former servants, and religious women who adamantly opposed price controls which would drive them out of business and resented attacks on the aristocracy and on religion.
Fist fights broke out in the streets between the two factions of women. Meanwhile, the men who controlled the Jacobins rejected the Revolutionary Republican Women as dangerous rabble-rousers.
They sternly reminded women to stay home and tend to their families by leaving public affairs to the men.
Organised women were permanently shut out of the French Revolution after 30 October Olympe de Gouges wrote a number of plays, short stories, and novels.
In her "Declaration on the Rights of Woman" she insisted that women deserved rights, especially in areas concerning them directly, such as divorce and recognition of illegitimate children.
Manon or Marie Roland was another important female activist. Her political focus was not specifically on women or their liberation.
The school soon was attended also by numerous German children of school fee paying Prussian nobles and officials, and developed into an elite school.
In view of the growing numbers of pupils, it moved into a larger building built on Reichstagsufer in the Dorotheenstadt quarter in The school was attended by an above-average number of Jewish pupils , who under the Nazi regime — like Jewish teachers — were harassed and finally excluded in However, despite all nationalist efforts, the French language remained the medium of teaching.
After the school was evacuated from Berlin and the historic school building on Reichstagsufer was destroyed in After the war, the school moved to the Wedding district in the French sector of what was to become West Berlin.
Several of its pupils though not all graduated became prominent in later life, among them the poet Adalbert von Chamisso , the authors Maximilian Harden and Kurt Tucholsky , the engineer Walter Dornberger and the resistance fighter Adam von Trott zu Solz , the songwriters Reinhard Mey and Ulrich Roski , as well as political scientist Gesine Schwan , the presidential candidate of the Social Democratic Party of Germany in It educates both German - and French -speaking pupils from francophone countries all over the world.
Grades are from 5 to 12, bilingual classes and teaching starting in grade 7.
French pronunciation follows strict rules based on spelling, but French spelling is often based more on history than phonology.
The rules for pronunciation vary between dialects, but the standard rules are:. Yet, they cannot be changed to "oe" and "ae" in formal and literary texts.
French spelling, like English spelling, tends to preserve obsolete pronunciation rules. This is mainly due to extreme phonetic changes since the Old French period, without a corresponding change in spelling.
Moreover, some conscious changes were made to restore Latin orthography as with some English words such as "debt":. French is a morphophonemic language.
While it contains graphemes that denote only 36 phonemes , many of its spelling rules are likely due to a consistency in morphemic patterns such as adding suffixes and prefixes.
In particular, a given vowel combination or diacritic generally leads to one phoneme. As a result, it can be difficult to predict the spelling of a word based on the sound.
Final consonants are generally silent, except when the following word begins with a vowel see Liaison French. For example, the following words end in a vowel sound: The same words followed by a vowel, however, may sound the consonants, as they do in these examples: French writing, as with any language, is affected by the spoken language.
In Old French, the plural for animal was animals. This change was then reflected in the orthography: The us ending, very common in Latin, was then abbreviated by copyists monks by the letter x , resulting in a written form animax.
The same is true for cheval pluralized as chevaux and many others. In addition, castel pl. Some proposals exist to simplify the existing writing system, but they still fail to gather interest.
In , a reform accepted some changes to French orthography. At the time the proposed changes were considered to be suggestions.
In , schoolbooks in France began to use the newer recommended spellings, with instruction to teachers that both old and new spellings be deemed correct.
French is a moderately inflected language. Nouns and most pronouns are inflected for number singular or plural, though in most nouns the plural is pronounced the same as the singular even if spelled differently ; adjectives , for number and gender masculine or feminine of their nouns; personal pronouns and a few other pronouns, for person , number, gender, and case ; and verbs , for tense , aspect , mood , and the person and number of their subjects.
Case is primarily marked using word order and prepositions , while certain verb features are marked using auxiliary verbs.
According to the French lexicogrammatical system, French has a rank-scale hierarchy with clause as the top rank, which is followed by group rank, word rank, and morpheme rank.
A French clause is made up of groups, groups are made up of words, and lastly, words are made up of morphemes. Every French noun is either masculine or feminine.
For nouns regarding the living, their grammatical genders often correspond to that which they refer to. For example, a male teacher is a "enseignant" while a female teacher is a "enseignante.
So a group of two male teachers would be "enseignants. The article used for singular nouns is different from that used for plural nouns and the article provides a distinguishing factor between the two in speech.
For example, the singular "le professeur" or "la professeur e " the male or female teacher, professor can be distinguished from the plural "les professeurs" because "le," "la," and "les" are all pronounced differently.
There are some situations where both the feminine and masculine form of a noun are the same and the article provides the only difference.
For example, "le dentiste" refers to a male dentist while "la dentiste" refers to a female dentist. The French language consists of both finite and non-finite moods.
The indicative mood makes use of eight different tense-aspect forms. Some forms are less commonly used today. The subjunctive mood only includes four of the tense-aspect forms found in the indicative: The imperative is used in the present tense with the exception of a few instances where it is used in the perfect tense.
French uses both the active voice and the passive voice. French declarative word order is subject—verb—object although a pronoun object precedes the verb.
Specifically, the first translates into "Do you speak French? In many cases a single etymological root appears in French in a "popular" or native form, inherited from Vulgar Latin, and a learned form, borrowed later from Classical Latin.
The following pairs consist of a native noun and a learned adjective:. However, a historical tendency to gallicise Latin roots can be identified, whereas English conversely leans towards a more direct incorporation of the Latin:.
It can be difficult to identify the Latin source of native French words, because in the evolution from Vulgar Latin , unstressed syllables were severely reduced and the remaining vowels and consonants underwent significant modifications.
More recently the linguistic policy of the French language academies of France and Quebec has been to provide French equivalents to mainly English imported words, either by using existing vocabulary, extending its meaning or deriving a new word according to French morphological rules.
The result is often two or more co-existing terms for describing the same phenomenon. Root languages of loanwords . One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin estimated that among the languages analyzed French has the greatest distance from Latin.
The French counting system is partially vigesimal: The French word for 80 is quatre-vingts , literally "four twenties", and the word for 75 is soixante-quinze , literally "sixty-fifteen".
This reform arose after the French Revolution to unify the different counting systems mostly vigesimal near the coast, because of Celtic via Breton and Viking influences.
This system is comparable to the archaic English use of score , as in "fourscore and seven" 87 , or "threescore and ten" In Old French during the Middle Ages , all numbers from 30 to 99 could be said in either base 10 or base 20, e.
In the French spoken in these places, 70 and 90 are septante and nonante. Octante had been used in Switzerland in the past, but is now considered archaic,  while in the Aosta Valley 80 is huitante.
French, like most European languages, uses a space to separate thousands. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with Francophonie.
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Retrieved 13 June Archived from the original on 29 March Policies for Managing Cultural Diversity". The Oxford Handbook of Multicultural Identity.
Oxford Library of Psychology. It is important to note, however, that not all countries have an official language. Until , France had discouraged the use of regional languages In , the government ratified Article from original source pdf 4.
Archived from the original pdf 0. Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original PDF on 17 June Retrieved 14 June Retrieved May 19, One example of a variety of African French that is difficult to understand for European French speakers.
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Corsica and a small part of the territory bordering the mediterranean basin lies in the Csa and Csb zones. As the French metropolitan territory is relatively large, the climate is not uniform, giving rise to the following climate nuances:.
France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in The parks foster ecological research programmes and public education in the natural sciences.
The French Republic is divided into 18 regions located in Europe and overseas , five overseas collectivities , one overseas territory , one special collectivity — New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France — Clipperton.
Since France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: This number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle number plates.
The departments are subdivided into arrondissements , which are, in turn, subdivided into 2, cantons. The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities , meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive.
Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until , the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area with the exception of St.
Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro.
The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditions. The executive branch itself has two leaders: Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms originally 9-year terms , and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September Since World War II, they were marginalized while French politics became characterised by two politically opposed groupings: In the presidential and legislative elections, radical centrist party En Marche!
France uses a civil legal system;  that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law.
Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV.
In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.
As Guy Canivet , first president of the Court of Cassation , wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.
That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.
French law is divided into two principal areas: Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law.
However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited.
France does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws the latter being abolished in Since , civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since May , same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal in France.
Some consider however that hate speech laws in France are too broad or severe and damage freedom of speech. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.
France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights. Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member.
Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU. However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom , and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.
France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the special relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.
In the early s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia.
In , France was the fourth-largest in absolute terms donor of development aid in the world, behind the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany.
Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.
The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.
The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.
France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.
The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles.
France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world. Other smaller parades are organised across the country.
The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s. As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2. France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise   with substantial state enterprise and government intervention.
The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.
Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. Three largest financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers are located in France.
France is a member of the Eurozone around million consumers which is part of the European Single Market more than million consumers.
Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation. France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products.
Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.
It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits. With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera French: With 6 millions tourists a year, the castles of the Loire Valley French: The " Remarkable Gardens " label is a list of the over gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture.
This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St.
France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8 , due to its heavy investment in nuclear power.
Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco.
There is no annual registration fee or road tax ; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes.
There are airports in France. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.
There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille ,  which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Since the Middle Ages , France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement.
They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution , which blossomed in Europe during this period. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.
It is one of the earliest academies of sciences. Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.
Hand transplantation was developed on 23 September in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.
France was the fourth country to achieve nuclear capability  and has the third largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world.
The TGV has been the fastest wheeled train in commercial use since reaching a speed of As of [update] , 69 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize  and 12 have received the Fields Medal.
With an estimated total population of France is also second most populous country in the European Union after Germany. France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a fairly high rate of natural population growth: This was the highest rate since the end of the baby boom in , and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.
As of January [update] the fertility rate was 1. Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more multicultural society.
A law originating from the revolution and reaffirmed in the French Constitution makes it illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.
There are also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups , namely Spanish , Portuguese , Polish , and Greek. France has a significant Gypsy Gitan population, numbering between 20, and , France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about , legal immigrants annually.
According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.
France is a highly urbanized country, with its largest cities in terms of metropolitan area population in  being Paris 12,, inh. There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which only include the core population.
Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century. According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the official language of France is French,  a Romance language derived from Latin.
The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications.
In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie.
The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.
From the 17th to the midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.
For most of the time in which French served as an international lingua franca, it was not the native language of most Frenchmen: French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English,  and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa.
The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.
It is estimated that between million  and million  people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language. According to the Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried in France by the Insee and based on a sample of 15, persons, French was the first mother tongue of People who had other languages as their mother tongue made up the 5.
Religion in France . France is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was.
In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornament. It recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine.
Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. Secte is considered a pejorative term in France.
The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.
Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World. Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries,       France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity , due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.
Rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. Nowadays, the schooling system in France is centralised, and is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education.
In France, education is compulsory from six to sixteen years old, and the public school is secular and free. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.
Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialisation and development of a basic grasp of language and number.
Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship. Secondary education also consists of two phases.
France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.
The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.
The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.
The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.
The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statutes, memorials and gardens.
The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.
The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.
The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism.
Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers.
During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe. Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe,  and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.
The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style.
However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one. Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.
On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.
After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.
Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.
The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire.
In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.
More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.
The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar.
For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet. The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.
There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.
Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.
Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people.
French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors.
Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times"  for excelling in all literary genres. The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement.
The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.
Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.
In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.
Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.
France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.
After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.
Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord.
French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.
Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.
This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music.
Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.
The two composers invented new musical forms     and new sounds. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.
French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.
Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government.
France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.
For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.
Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,  although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.
Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception. S and Israel, voted against it.
Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.
The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards.
The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.
The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH. Like in most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade.
In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent,   but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.
In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations   remained under state-control.
It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio.
In , the government created global news channel France According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.
In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.
Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.
French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites.
French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.
In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. Since , France hosts the annual Tour de France , the most famous road bicycle race in the world.
French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs.
The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.
Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.
Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse. The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France.
In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker. The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories. Great Seal of France. Show map of Europe. Source gives area of metropolitan France as , km2 , sq mi and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89, km 2 34, sq mi.
Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as , km2 , sq mi. Gaul , Celts , and Roman Gaul.
Francia , Merovingian dynasty , and Carolingian dynasty. List of French monarchs and France in the Middle Ages. Kingdom of France , Capetian dynasty , Valois dynasty , and Bourbon dynasty.
France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century. France in the twentieth century. Administrative divisions of France. Centre- Val de Loire.
Pays de la Loire. Foreign relations of France. Bastille Day in Paris. List of French inventions and discoveries. Demographics of France and French people.
Largest cities or towns in France census. Urban area France and Urban unit. French language , Languages of France , and Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.
France portal French language and French-speaking world portal. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: All five are considered integral parts of the French Republic.
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Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 14 February Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 25 April Archived from the original on 19 July Archived from the original on 29 April France less polluting thanks to nuclear].So wuchs die Einwohnerzahl in knapp Jahren nur um drei Millionen: Zwischen 58 und 51 v. Die Normannen fielen wiederholt in der Normandie ein, die daher ihren Namen bekam; im Jahre eroberten sie England. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Im März wurden die Römischen Verträge unterzeichnet; zum 1. 2 liga bundesliga gehören verpflichtend unter anderem folgende Verbindungen:. Juli, Sturm auf die Bastille , Föderationsfest. Diese werden indirekt für eine Amtszeit von sechs Jahren gewählt. Die historisch bedeutsame französische kommunistische Partei , in den ersten Jahren des Nachdem Wilhelm der Eroberer im Jahr den englischen Thron bestiegen hatte, wurde das normannische Französisch für zwei Jahrhunderte die Sprache des englischen Adels. Schluss mit den Ämteranhäufungen in Frankreich. Frankreich nimmt auch in der Nuklearforschung eine führende Rolle ein: Indirekt üben sie damit auch Kritik an der Bundesbürokratie und an der Geringschätzung des Französischen durch die deutschsprachige Mehrheit. In der Deutschschweiz wird dafür auch die Bezeichnung Welsch verwendet. Dort gilt bis heute im Wesentlichen die Regelung von Der Senat hat Mitglieder seit , Stand